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HISTORY OF JAZZ:
Tin Pan Alley
"World fusion" refers to a fusion of Third
World music or just world music with jazz, specifically:
(1) Ethnic music that has incorporated jazz improvisations (for example,
Latin jazz). Frequently, only the solos are improvised jazz. The accompaniments
and compositions are essentially the same as in the ethnic music.
(2) Jazz that has incorporated limited aspects of a particular non-Western
music. Examples include performances of Dizzy Gillespie’s "A
Night in Tunisia" music on some of the 1970s quartet recordings
by Keith Jarrett's quartet and quintet on Impulse, in which Middle Eastern
instruments and harmonic methods are modified and used; and some of
Sun Ra's music from the 1950s into the l990s, in which African rhythms
are incorporated; some of Yusef Lateers recordings that feature traditional
Islamic instruments and methods.
(3) New musical styles that result from distinctly original ways of
combining jazz improvisation with original ideas and the instruments,
harmonies, compositional practices, and rhythms of an existing ethnic
tradition. The product is original but its flavor still reflects some
aspects of a non-jazz ethnic tradition. Examples include Don Cherry's
bands; some of John McLaughlin's music from the 1970s and the l990s
that drew heavily on the traditions of India; some of Don Ellis's music
of the 1970s that drew upon the music of India and Bulgaria; and work
by Andy Narell in the 1990s that melds the music and instruments of
Trinidad with jazz improvisations and funk styles.
World fusion jazz did not first occur with modern jazz
and its trends are not exclusive to American jazz. For instance, Polynesian
music was fusing with Western pop styles at the beginning of the twentieth
century, and its feeling attracted some of the earliest jazz musicians.
Caribbean dance rhythms have been a significant part of American pop
culture throughout the twentieth century, and, since jazz musicians
frequently improvised when performing in pop music contexts, blends
have been occurring almost continuously. Django Reinhardt was melding
the traditions of Gypsy music with French impressionist concert music
and jazz improvisation during the 1930s in France.